SABAH


 
HomeHome  Portal*Portal*  FAQFAQ  RegisterRegister  Log inLog in  
Selamat datang ke SBF, laman web berinfo dan membina minda rakyat Sabah ke arah perkongsian idea serta penggalakan pembangunan minda individu secara positif. Terdapat topik popular dalam forum ini yang hanya boleh diakses oleh ahli berdaftar sahaja. Semua lagu yang terdapat dalam laman web ini merupakan promosi sahaja. Sila ke kedai yang berhampiran untuk mendapatkan lagu tersebut. Semua post yang tidak sesuai atau melanggar peraturan berforum juga akan dipadam serta-merta demi menjaga nama baik SBF. Selamat berforum. Terima kasih. Admin SBF

Share | 
 

 Skizofrenia

View previous topic View next topic Go down 
AuthorMessage
korrud
Senior SBF
Senior SBF


Number of posts : 484
Points : 3
Registration date : 2008-04-15

PostSubject: Skizofrenia   Wed Sep 03, 2008 11:26 am

Seperti mana yg kita tau..penyakit ini adalah di sebabkan kerosakan sebahagian fungsi didalam otak seperti teori gangguan gen, Abnormal struktur otak Pembesaran jantung melemahkan beberapa area didalam otak, memunculkan berkurangnya fungsi kognitif dan emosi. Penurunan volume dan kepadatan neuron di frontal & temporal cortex dan area limbic menyebabkan berkurangnya fungsi emosi dan kognitif.

itu sakap2 saintis,

Tapi kalau mengikut kepercayaan tradisional dan dulu. penyakit ini di sebabkan oleh gangguan makhluk halus, kepercayaan ini pula dikuatkan lagi oleh perubatan secara tradisional yg boleh menyembuhkan penyakit ini sedangkan pada masa yg sama hospital masih tiada ubat mutlak tapi sekadar ubat penenang saja.

Jadi kawan2 semua. apa cerita di sebalik bah semua ini? kongsikan kemahiran anda dan pengetahuan luas anda didalam berforum.
Back to top Go down
blueberry
Senior SBF
Senior SBF


Number of posts : 483
Points : 0
Registration date : 2008-03-26

PostSubject: Re: Skizofrenia   Wed Sep 03, 2008 11:48 am

penyakit yg ada kaitan sma jiwa inda tenteram ba ni kan korrud..ada yg sia baca dulu..pesakit skizofrenia ni biasanya urg yg bermasalah..tdk mendpt bantuan segera...bila durang cuba lari dari tu masalah mula la cuba2 hidup dlm dunia durang sndiri..pastu pndai berhalusinasi..smpai tahap parah bulih membahayakan org lain dan diri sndiri (bunuh diri).. Shocked

klu ikut tradisional pnya explanaton plak keja makhluk halus ni..jd mgkali ada btul jgk la...psal klu urg yg byk problem ni slalunya tahap mental & fizikal dia ni lemah ba jd senang la tu bnda2 halus kasi pengaruh...btul ka korrud..sia agak2 sj ni hehe.. alien tongue
Back to top Go down
korrud
Senior SBF
Senior SBF


Number of posts : 484
Points : 3
Registration date : 2008-04-15

PostSubject: Re: Skizofrenia   Wed Sep 03, 2008 2:45 pm

Lujik bah cakap kau ni sayang..Oppsss...nah kana marah saya nanti sma si alpha..hihi..
Back to top Go down
Borneo
VIP Moderator
VIP Moderator


Number of posts : 950
Location : North Borneo
Points : 266
Registration date : 2008-02-23

PostSubject: Re: Skizofrenia   Wed Sep 03, 2008 6:04 pm

Ini penerangan tentang schizofrenia:

http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Schizofrenia


Harap kita semua mudah memahami punca dan cara menanganinya.

_________________
Read this before successfully posting:
http://sabah.forumotion.com/faq.htm
Back to top Go down
alphawaves
SBF Mentor
SBF Mentor


Male
Number of posts : 938
Age : 56
Location : sanaa bah..
Job/hobbies : joomla! addict..
Points : 5
Registration date : 2008-02-25

PostSubject: Re: Skizofrenia   Wed Sep 03, 2008 8:32 pm

Borneo wrote:
Ini penerangan tentang schizofrenia:

http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Schizofrenia


Harap kita semua mudah memahami punca dan cara menanganinya.

Bagus pensarian link dari Mr. Borneo ini. terima kasih. Very Happy
Back to top Go down
http://asiamistik.forumotion.com
akinabalu
SBF Moderator
SBF Moderator


Male
Number of posts : 581
Points : 49
Registration date : 2008-02-22

PostSubject: Re: Skizofrenia   Thu Sep 04, 2008 7:50 am

Wah, bagus perkongsian ni.
Back to top Go down
shalon6095
SBF Supersenior
SBF Supersenior


Number of posts : 554
Points : -90
Registration date : 2008-04-22

PostSubject: Re: Skizofrenia   Fri Sep 05, 2008 3:07 pm

Borneo wrote:
Ini penerangan tentang schizofrenia:

http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Schizofrenia


Harap kita semua mudah memahami punca dan cara menanganinya.

TQ borneo... Very Happy
Back to top Go down
alphawaves
SBF Mentor
SBF Mentor


Male
Number of posts : 938
Age : 56
Location : sanaa bah..
Job/hobbies : joomla! addict..
Points : 5
Registration date : 2008-02-25

PostSubject: Re: Skizofrenia   Fri Sep 05, 2008 7:52 pm

jadi setuju kah anda semua kalau di katakan schizofrenia ini sebenarnya adalah mulau/mulow/mulzaw (gila)?
Back to top Go down
http://asiamistik.forumotion.com
Borneo
VIP Moderator
VIP Moderator


Number of posts : 950
Location : North Borneo
Points : 266
Registration date : 2008-02-23

PostSubject: Re: Skizofrenia   Sat Sep 06, 2008 9:36 am

Schizophrenia Definition

Schizophrenia
is a psychotic disorder (or a group of disorders) marked by severely
impaired thinking, emotions, and behaviors. Schizophrenic patients are
typically unable to filter sensory stimuli and may have enhanced
perceptions of sounds, colors, and other features of their environment.
Most schizophrenics, if untreated, gradually withdraw from interactions
with other people, and lose their ability to take care of personal
needs and grooming.
The prevalence of
schizophrenia is thought to be about 1% of the population around the
world; it is thus more common than diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, or multiple sclerosis.
In the United States and Canada, patients with schizophrenia fill about
25% of all hospital beds. The disorder is considered to be one of the
top ten causes of long-term disability worldwide.
Description

The
course of schizophrenia in adults can be divided into three phases or
stages. In the acute phase, the patient has an overt loss of contact
with reality (psychotic episode) that requires intervention and
treatment. In the second or stabilization phase, the initial psychotic
symptoms have been brought under control but the patient is at risk for
relapse if treatment is interrupted. In the third or maintenance phase,
the patient is relatively stable and can be kept indefinitely on
antipsychotic medications. Even in the maintenance phase, however,
relapses are not unusual and patients do not always return to full
functioning.
The English term schizophrenia
comes from two Greek words that mean "split mind." It was observed
around 1908, by a Swiss doctor named Eugen Bleuler, to describe the
splitting apart of mental functions that he regarded as the central
characteristic of schizophrenia.
Recently,
some psychotherapists have begun to use a classification of
schizophrenia based on two main types. People with Type I, or positive
schizophrenia, have a rapid (acute) onset of symptoms and tend to
respond well to drugs. They also tend to suffer more from the
"positive" symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations.
People with Type II, or negative schizophrenia, are usually described
as poorly adjusted before their schizophrenia slowly overtakes them.
They have predominantly "negative" symptoms, such as withdrawal from
others and a slowing of mental and physical reactions (psychomotor
retardation).
There are five subtypes of schizophrenia:
Paranoid

The
key feature of this subtype of schizophrenia is the combination of
false beliefs (delusions) and hearing voices (auditory hallucinations),
with more nearly normal emotions and cognitive functioning (cognitive
functions include reasoning, judgment, and memory). The delusions of
paranoid schizophrenics usually involve thoughts of being persecuted or
harmed by others or exaggerated opinions of their own importance, but
may also reflect feelings of jealousy or excessive religiosity. The
delusions are typically organized into a coherent framework. Paranoid
schizophrenics function at a higher level than other subtypes, but are
at risk for suicidal or violent behavior under the influence of their
delusions.
Disorganized

Disorganized
schizophrenia (formerly called hebephrenic schizophrenia) is marked by
disorganized speech, thinking, and behavior on the patient's part,
coupled with flat or inappropriate emotional responses to a situation
(affect). The patient may act silly or withdraw socially to an extreme
extent. Most patients in this category have weak personality structures
prior to their initial acute psychotic episode.
Catatonic

Catatonic
schizophrenia is characterized by disturbances of movement that may
include rigidity, stupor, agitation, bizarre posturing, and repetitive
imitations of the movements or speech of other people. These patients
are at risk for malnutrition, exhaustion, or self-injury. This subtype is presently uncommon in Europe and the United States. Catatonia as a symptom is most commonly associated with mood disorders.
Undifferentiated

Patients
in this category have the characteristic positive and negative symptoms
of schizophrenia but do not meet the specific criteria for the
paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic subtypes.
Residual

This
category is used for patients who have had at least one acute
schizophrenic episode but do not presently have strong positive
psychotic symptoms, such as delusions and hallucinations. They may have
negative symptoms, such as withdrawal from others, or mild forms of
positive symptoms, which indicate that the disorder has not completely
resolved.
The risk of schizophrenia among
first-degree biological relatives is ten times greater than that
observed in the general population. Furthermore the presence of the
same disorder is higher in monozygotic twins (identical twins) than in
dizygotic twins (nonidentical twins). The research concerning adoption
studies and identical twins also supports the notion that environmental
factors are important, because not all relatives who have the disorder
express it. There are several chromosomes and loci (specific areas on
chromosomes which contain mutated genes), which have been identified.
Research is actively ongoing to elucidate the causes, types and
variations of these mutations.
Most patients
are diagnosed in their late teens or early twenties, but the symptoms
of schizophrenia can emerge at any age in the life cycle. The
male/female ratio in adults is about 1.2:1. Male patients typically
have their first acute episode in their early twenties, while female
patients are usually closer to age 30 when they are recognized with
active symptoms.
Schizophrenia is rarely
diagnosed in preadolescent children, although patients as young as five
or six have been reported. Childhood schizophrenia is at the upper end
of the spectrum of severity and shows a greater gender disparity. It
affects one or two children in every 10,000; the male/female ratio is
2:1.
Causes and symptoms

Theories of causality

One
of the reasons for the ongoing difficulty in classifying schizophrenic
disorders is incomplete understanding of their causes. It is thought
that these disorders are the end result of a combination of genetic,
neurobiological, and environmental causes. A leading neurobiological
hypothesis looks at the connection between the disease and excessive
levels of dopamine, a chemical that transmits signals in the brain
(neurotransmitter). The genetic factor in schizophrenia has been
underscored by recent findings that first-degree biological relatives
of schizophrenics are ten times as likely to develop the disorder as
are members of the general population.
Prior
to recent findings of abnormalities in the brain structure of
schizophrenic patients, several generations of psychotherapists
advanced a number of psychoanalytic and sociological theories about the
origins of schizophrenia. These theories ranged from hypotheses about
the patient's problems with anxiety or aggression to theories about stress
reactions or interactions with disturbed parents. Psychosocial factors
are now thought to influence the expression or severity of
schizophrenia rather than cause it directly.
As of 2004, migration is a social factor that is known to influence people's susceptibility to psychosis.
Psychiatrists in Europe have noted the increasing rate of schizophrenia
and other psychotic disorders among immigrants to almost all Western
European countries. Black immigrants from Africa or the Caribbean
appear to be especially vulnerable. The stresses involved in migration
include family breakup, the need to adjust to living in large urban
areas, and social inequalities in the new country.
Another
hypothesis suggests that schizophrenia may be caused by a virus that
attacks the hippocampus, a part of the brain that processes sense
perceptions. Damage to the hippocampus would account for schizophrenic
patients' vulnerability to sensory overload. As of 2004, researchers
are focusing on the possible role of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) in
schizophrenia, as well as human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). The
possibility that HERVs may be associated with schizophrenia has to do
with the fact that antibodies to these retroviruses are found more
frequently in the blood serum of patients with schizophrenia than in
serum from control subjects.

_________________
Read this before successfully posting:
http://sabah.forumotion.com/faq.htm
Back to top Go down
Borneo
VIP Moderator
VIP Moderator


Number of posts : 950
Location : North Borneo
Points : 266
Registration date : 2008-02-23

PostSubject: Re: Skizofrenia   Sat Sep 06, 2008 9:37 am

Symptoms of schizophrenia

Patients with a
possible diagnosis of schizophrenia are evaluated on the basis of a set
or constellation of symptoms; there is no single symptom that is unique
to schizophrenia. In 1959, the German psychiatrist Kurt Schneider
proposed a list of so-called first-rank symptoms, which he regarded as
diagnostic of the disorder.
These symptoms include:
Somatic
hallucinations refer to sensations or perceptions concerning body
organs that have no known medical cause or reason, such as the notion
that one's brain is radioactive. Thought insertion and/or withdrawal
refer to delusions that an outside force (for example, the FBI, the
CIA, Martians, etc.) has the power to put thoughts into one's mind or
remove them.
POSITIVE SYMPTOMS. The positive
symptoms of schizophrenia are those that represent an excessive or
distorted version of normal functions. Positive symptoms include
Schneider's first-rank symptoms as well as disorganized thought
processes (reflected mainly in speech) and disorganized or catatonic
behavior. Disorganized thought processes are marked by such
characteristics as looseness of associations, in which the patient
rambles from topic to topic in a disconnected way; tangentially, which
means that the patient gives unrelated answers to questions; and "word
salad," in which the patient's speech is so incoherent that it makes no
grammatical or linguistic sense. Disorganized behavior means that the
patient has difficulty with any type of purposeful or goal-oriented
behavior, including personal self-care or preparing meals. Other forms
of disorganized behavior may include dressing in odd or inappropriate
ways, sexual self-stimulation in public, or agitated shouting or
cursing.
NEGATIVE SYMPTOMS. Schizophrenia
includes three so-called negative symptoms. They are called negative
because they represent the lack or absence of behaviors. The negative
symptoms that are considered diagnostic of schizophrenia are a lack of
emotional response (affective flattening), poverty of speech, and
absence of volition or will. In general, the negative symptoms are more
difficult for doctors to evaluate than the positive symptoms.
Diagnosis

A
doctor must make a diagnosis of schizophrenia on the basis of a
standardized list of outwardly observable symptoms, not on the basis of
internal psychological processes. There are no specific laboratory
tests that can be used to diagnose schizophrenia. Researchers have,
however, discovered that patients with schizophrenia have certain
abnormalities in the structure and functioning of the brain compared to
normal test subjects. These discoveries have been made with the help of
imaging techniques such as computed tomography scans (CT scans).
When
a psychiatrist assesses a patient for schizophrenia, he or she will
begin by excluding physical conditions that can cause abnormal thinking
and some other behaviors associated with schizophrenia. These
conditions include organic brain disorders (including traumatic
injuries of the brain), temporal lobe epilepsy, Wilson's disease, prion
diseases, Huntington's chorea, and encephalitis. The doctor will also need to rule out heavy metal poisoning and substance abuse disorders, especially amphetamine use.
After
ruling out organic disorders, the clinician will consider other
psychiatric conditions that may include psychotic symptoms or symptoms
resembling psychosis. These disorders include mood disorders with
psychotic features; delusional disorder; dissociative disorder not
otherwise specified (DDNOS) or multiple personality disorder; schizotypal, schizoid, or paranoid personality disorders;
and atypical reactive disorders. In the past, many individuals were
incorrectly diagnosed as schizophrenic. Some patients who were
diagnosed prior to the changes in categorization should have their
diagnoses, and treatment, reevaluated. In children, the doctor must
distinguish between psychotic symptoms and a vivid fantasy life, and
also identify learning problems or disorders. After other conditions
have been ruled out, the patient must meet a set of criteria specified:
Treatment

The
treatment of schizophrenia depends in part on the patient's stage or
phase. Psychotic symptoms and behaviors are considered psychiatric
emergencies, and persons showing signs of psychosis are frequently
taken by family, friends, or the police to a hospital emergency room. A
person diagnosed as psychotic can be legally hospitalized against his
or her will, particularly if he or she is violent, threatening to
commit suicide,
or threatening to harm another person. A psychotic person may also be
hospitalized if he or she has become malnourished or ill as a result of
failure to feed, dress appropriately for the climate, or otherwise take
care of him- or herself.
A patient having a first psychotic episode should be given a CT or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan to rule out structural brain disease.
Antipsychotic medications

The primary form of treatment of schizophrenia is antipsychotic medication. Antipsychotic drugs
help to control almost all the positive symptoms of the disorder. They
have minimal effects on disorganized behavior and negative symptoms.
Between 60-70% of schizophrenics will respond to antipsychotics. In the
acute phase of the illness, patients are usually given medications by
mouth or by intramuscular injection. After the patient has been
stabilized, the antipsychotic drug may be given in a long-acting form
called a depot dose. Depot medications last for two to four weeks; they
have the advantage of protecting the patient against the consequences
of forgetting or skipping daily doses. In addition, some patients who
do not respond to oral neuroleptics have better results with depot
form. Patients whose long-term treatment includes depot medications are
introduced to the depot form gradually during their stabilization
period. Most people with schizophrenia are kept indefinitely on
antipsychotic medications during the maintenance phase of their
disorder to minimize the possibility of relapse.
As
of the early 2000s, the most frequently used antipsychotics fall into
two classes: the older dopamine receptor antagonists, or DAs, and the
newer serotonin dopamine antagonists, or SDAs. (Antagonists block the
action of some other substance; for example, dopamine antagonists
counteract the action of dopamine.) The exact mechanisms of action of
these medications are not known, but it is thought that they lower the
patient's sensitivity to sensory stimuli and so indirectly improve the
patient's ability to interact with others.
DOPAMINE
RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST. The dopamine antagonists include the older
antipsychotic (also called neuroleptic) drugs, such as haloperidol
(Haldol), chlorpromazine (Thorazine), and fluphenazine (Prolixin).
These drugs have two major drawbacks: it is often difficult to find the
best dosage level for the individual patient, and a dosage level high
enough to control psychotic symptoms frequently produces extrapyramidal
side effects, or EPS. EPSs include parkinsonism, in which the patient
cannot walk normally and usually develops a tremor; dystonia, or
painful muscle spasms of the head, tongue, or neck; and akathisia, or
restlessness. A type of long-term EPS is called tardive dyskinesia, which features slow, rhythmic, automatic movements. Schizophrenics with AIDS are especially vulnerable to developing EPS.
SEROTONIN
DOPANINE ANTAGONISTS. The serotonin dopamine antagonists, also called
atypical antipsychotics, are newer medications that include clozapine
(Clozaril), risperidone (Risperdal), and olanzapine (Zyprexa). The SDAs
have a better effect on the negative symptoms of schizophrenia than do
the older drugs and are less likely to produce EPS than the older
compounds. The newer drugs are significantly more expensive in the
short term, although the SDAs may reduce long-term costs by reducing
the need for hospitalization. They are also presently unavailable in
injectable forms. The SDAs are commonly used to treat patients who
respond poorly to the DAs. However, many psychotherapists now regard
the use of these atypical antipsychotics as the treatment of first
choice; in particular, clozapine appears to be more effective than
other antipsychotics in controlling persistent aggression in some
patients.
NEWER DRUGS. Some newer
antipsychotic drugs have been approved by the Food and Drug
administration (FDA) in the early 2000s. These drugs are sometimes
called second-generation antipsychotics or SGAs. Aripiprazole
(Abilify), which is classified as a partial dopaminergic agonist,
received FDA approval in August 2003. Two drugs that are still under
investigation, a neurokinin antagonist and a serotonin 2A/2C antagonist
respectively, show promise in the treatment of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.
Psychotherapy

Most
schizophrenics can benefit from psychotherapy once their acute symptoms
have been brought under control by antipsychotic medication.
Psychoanalytic approaches are not recommended. Behavior therapy,
however, is often helpful in assisting patients to acquire skills for
daily living and social interaction. It can be combined with
occupational therapy to prepare the patient for eventual employment.
Family therapy

Family therapy
is often recommended for the families of schizophrenic patients, to
relieve the feelings of guilt that they often have as well as to help
them understand the patient's disorder. The family's attitude and
behaviors toward the patient are key factors in minimizing relapses
(for example, by reducing stress in the patient's life), and family
therapy can often strengthen the family's ability to cope with the
stresses caused by the schizophrenic's illness. Family therapy focused
on communication skills and problem-solving strategies is particularly
helpful. In addition to formal treatment, many families benefit from
support groups and similar mutual help organizations for relatives of
schizophrenics.
Prognosis

One
important prognostic sign is the patient's age at onset of psychotic
symptoms. Patients with early onset of schizophrenia are more often
male, have a lower level of functioning prior to onset, a higher rate
of brain abnormalities, more noticeable negative symptoms, and worse
outcomes. Patients with later onset are more likely to be female, with
fewer brain abnormalities and thought impairment, and more hopeful
prognoses.
The average course and outcome for
schizophrenics are less favorable than those for most other mental
disorders, although as many as 30% of patients diagnosed with
schizophrenia recover completely and the majority experience some
improvement. Two factors that influence outcomes are stressful life
events and a hostile or emotionally intense family environment.
Schizophrenics with a high number of stressful changes in their lives,
or who have frequent contacts with critical or emotionally
over-involved family members, are more likely to relapse. Overall, the
most important component of long-term care of schizophrenic patients is
complying with their regimen of antipsychotic medications.


_________________
Read this before successfully posting:
http://sabah.forumotion.com/faq.htm
Back to top Go down
Borneo
VIP Moderator
VIP Moderator


Number of posts : 950
Location : North Borneo
Points : 266
Registration date : 2008-02-23

PostSubject: Re: Skizofrenia   Sat Sep 06, 2008 9:38 am

Punca pencarian kedua-dua post di atas:
Resources

Books

American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed., revised. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
Beers, Mark H., MD, and Robert Berkow, MD., editors. "Psychiatric Emergencies." Section 15, Chapter 194 In The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 2004.
Beers, Mark H., MD, and Robert Berkow, MD., editors. "Schizophrenia and Related Disorders." Section 15, Chapter 193 In The Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy. Whitehouse Station, NJ: Merck Research Laboratories, 2004.
Wilson, Billie Ann, Margaret T. Shannon, and Carolyn L. Stang. Nurse's Drug Guide 2003. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2003.
Periodicals

DeLeon,
A., N. C. Patel, and M. L. Crismon. "Aripiprazole: A Comprehensive
Review of Its Pharmacology, Clinical Efficacy, and Tolerability." Clinical Therapeutics 26 (May 2004): 649-666.
Frankenburg, Frances R., MD. "Schizophrenia." eMedicine June 17, 2004. http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic2072.htm.
Hutchinson,
G., and C. Haasen. "Migration and Schizophrenia: The Challenges for
European Psychiatry and Implications for the Future." Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 39 (May 2004): 350-357.
Meltzer,
H. Y., L. Arvanitis, D. Bauer, et al. "Placebo-Controlled Evaluation of
Four Novel Compounds for the Treatment of Schizophrenia and
Schizoaffective Disorder." American Journal of Psychiatry 161 (June 2004): 975-984.
Mueser, K. T., and S. R. McGurk. "Schizophrenia." Lancet 363 (June 19, 2004): 2063-2072.
Volavka,
J., P. Czobor, K. Nolan, et al. "Overt Aggression and Psychotic
Symptoms in Patients with Schizophrenia Treated with Clozapine,
Olanzapine, Risperidone, or Haloperidol." Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 24 (April 2004): 225-228.
Yolken, R. "Viruses and Schizophrenia: A Focus on Herpes Simplex Virus." Herpes 11, Supplement 2 (June 2004): 83A-88A.
Organizations

American Psychiatric Association. 1400 K Street NW, Washington DC 20005. (888) 357-7924. http://www.psych.org.
National
Alliance for the Mentally Ill (NAMI). Colonial Place Three, 2107 Wilson
Blvd., Suite 300 Arlington, VA 22201. (703) 524-7600 HelpLine: (800)
950-NAMI. http://www.nami.org/.
National
Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). 6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 8184,
MSC 9663, Bethesda, MD 20892-9663. (301) 443-4513. http://www.nimh.nih.gov.
Schizophrenics Anonymous. 15920 W. Twelve Mile, Southfield, MI 48076. (248) 477-1983.
United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857-0001. (888) INFOFDA. http://www.fda.gov.
Other

"Schizophrenia." Internet Mental Health. http://www.mentalhealth.com/dis/p20-ps01.html.
gem()Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

schizophrenia /schizo·phre·nia/ (skit?so-frenŽe-ah) (-freŽne-ah)
a mental disorder or group of disorders characterized by disturbances
in the form and content of thought (e.g., delusions, hallucinations),
in mood (e.g., inappropriate affect), in sense of self and relationship
to the external world (e.g., loss of ego boundaries, withdrawal), and
in behavior (e.g., bizarre or apparently purposeless behavior); it must
cause marked decrease in functioning and be present for at least six
months.schizophrenŽic
catatonic schizophrenia
a form characterized by psychomotor disturbance, which may be
manifested by a marked decrease in reactivity to the environment and in
spontaneous activity, by excited, uncontrollable, and apparently
purposeless motor activity, by resistance to instructions or attempts
to be moved, or by maintenance of a rigid posture or of fixed bizarre
postures.
childhood schizophrenia
former name for schizophrenia-like symptoms with onset before puberty,
marked by autistic, withdrawn behavior, failure to develop an identity
separate from the mother's, and gross developmental immaturity, now
classified as pervasive developmental disorders.
disorganized schizophrenia , hebephrenic schizophrenia
a form marked by disorganized and incoherent thought and speech,
shallow, inappropriate, and silly affect, and regressive behavior
without systematized delusions.
paranoid schizophrenia
a form characterized by delusions, often with auditory hallucinations,
with relative preservation of affect and cognitive functioning.
residual schizophrenia
a condition manifested by individuals with symptoms of schizophrenia
who, after a psychotic schizophrenic episode, are no longer psychotic.
undifferentiated schizophrenia
a type characterized by the presence of prominent psychotic symptoms
but not classifiable as catatonic, disorganized, or paranoid.
dorland()
Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

_________________
Read this before successfully posting:
http://sabah.forumotion.com/faq.htm
Back to top Go down
Pakbelalang
Regular Member
Regular Member


Male
Number of posts : 247
Age : 107
Location : sabah
Job/hobbies : kuli
Points : -12
Registration date : 2008-08-09

PostSubject: Re: Skizofrenia   Sat Sep 06, 2008 11:54 pm

ini barulah namanya perkongsian pintar...McGuyver jugalah..hihihi Smile
Back to top Go down
http://www.google.com
Sponsored content




PostSubject: Re: Skizofrenia   Today at 9:35 pm

Back to top Go down
 
Skizofrenia
View previous topic View next topic Back to top 
Page 1 of 1

Permissions in this forum:You cannot reply to topics in this forum
SABAH :: Umum :: Psychology-
Jump to: